1. What is the title given to the Russian Emperor? (1)
2. What was the comintern? (1)
Ans. An International Union of pro-Bolshevik Socialist parties.
3. Name two Indians who took an interest in the Soviet Experiment. (1)
Ans. Jawaharlal Nehru & Rabindranath Tagore
4. Who was the Russian Prime Minister during the October Revolution of 1917? (1)
Ans. Prime Minister Kerenskii
5. Which English Manufacturer built a cooperative community called “New Harmony”? (1)
Ans. Robert Owen
6. What was the Jungbulk? (1)
Ans. A Nazi youth group for children below the age of 14 years.
7. Define Genocide. (1)
Ans. Killing on a large scale leading to destruction of large sections of people.
8. Name the economist who was given the responsibility of German economic recovery. (1)
Ans. Jhalmar Schacht
9. Name Charlotte Berdt’s dairy. (1)
Ans. Third Reich of Dreams
10. Name the Pastoral Community of Gujarat. (1)
11. Name the National Park of Tanzania. (1)
Ans. Serengeti Park in Tanzania
12. When was the Criminal Tribe’s Act passed? (1)
13. Name the political party of Zimbabwe who led the freedom struggle. (1)
Ans. ZANU PF
14. Name the movement started by Chaudhary Devi Lal. (1)
Ans. Nyay Yudh
15. What is the Electoral Roll? (1)
Ans. In a democratic election, the list of those who are eligible to vote is prepared much before the elections and given to everyone. It is also called the Voters List.
16. Where is the National Human Rights Commission in India? (1)
Ans. New Delhi
17. Name the leader whose government was hostile to the Kosovo Albanians. (1)
18. Match the following: (1)
|Column – 1||Column – 2|
|A. Louis IX became the King of France||1. 1792-93|
|B. France became a Republic||2. 1804|
|C. Napolean became Emperor of France||3. 1774|
|D. Napolean defeated at Waterloo||4. 1815|
Ans. A – 3, B- 1, C – 2, D – 4
19. Give reasons for the walk out from the Assembly of Estate General by the members of Third Estate on 5th May 1789 in France. What steps were taken by the members of the Third Estate after the walk out? (3)
- Louis XVI found the treasury empty, when he ascended the throne.
- To meet the state expenses he had to increase the taxes.
- In the OLD REGIME, the king did not have the right to increase taxes. So he called a meeting of the ESTATES GENERAL on 5th MAY 1789, to pass the proposal for the new taxes.
1st estate sent 300 representatives.
2nd estate sent 300 representatives.
3rd estate sent 600 representatives, who belonged to the PROSPEROUS &EDUCATED section.
- WOMEN, PEASANTS, ARTISANS were not allowed entry.
- In the past, voting was on the principle of 1 estate, one vote.
- Members of the 3rd estate, demanded voting should be conducted by the ASSEMBLY as a WHOLE, each member should have one vote.
- But the king rejected the proposal.
So the members of the 3rd estate walked out of the assembly.
- They assembled in the HALL of an INDOOR TENNIS COURT in the grounds of VERSAILLES.
- They declared themselves as a NATIONAL ASSEMBLY & swore (promised) not to move till they had drafted a CONSTITUTION which would LIMIT the king’s powers.
- Their leaders were:
- MIRABEAU: born in a NOBLE family.
- He wanted a society free of FEUDAL PRIVILEGES.
- He brought out a journal & gave speeches to the crowd.
- Assembled at VERSAILLES.
- ABBE SIEYES: was a PRIEST
- Wrote a pamphlet, WHAT IS THE THIRD ESTATE?
- MIRABEAU: born in a NOBLE family.
20. Explain the October 1917 Revolution. (3)
- The conflict between the Provisional Government and the Bolsheviks increased and Lenin feared that the Provisional Government would set up a dictatorial form of government.
- In September, Lenin began discussions for an uprising against the government.
- Bolshevik supporter were brought together from the:
- Soviets and
16th OCTOBER 1917:
- Lenin persuaded the Petrograd Soviet and the Bolshevik Party to agree to a socialist seizure.
- A Military Revolutionary Committee was appointed by the Soviet under LEON TROTSKII to organize the seizure but the date of the event was kept a
24th OCTOBER 1917:
- Prime Minister Kerenskii left the city to summon troops when he sensed trouble.
- Military men loyal to the government SEIZED the buildings of two Bolshevik newspapers at dawn.
- Pro-government troops were sent to:
- Take over Telephone and telegraph offices and
- To protect the Winter Palace.
- The Military Revolutionary Committee ordered its supporters to:
- Seize Government offices and
- Arrest Ministers.
- Later in the day, the ship Aurora shelled the Winter Palace.
- Other vessels sailed down the Neva and took control of various military points.
- By night, the city was under the committee’s control and the minister had SURRENDERED.
- At a meeting of the All Russian Congress of Soviets in Petrograd, the majority APPROVED the Bolshevik action.
- Uprising took place in other cities.
- There was heavy fighting, especially in Moscow but by December, the Bolsheviks controlled the Moscow-Petrograd Area.
21. Explain Lebensraum. (3)
- Hitler’s ideology related to the geopolitical concept of Lebensraum, or living space.
- He believed that new territories had to be acquired for settlement.
- This would increase the area of the mother country, while enabling the settlers on new lands to retain an intimate link with the place of their origin.
- It would also enhance the material resources and power of the German nation.
- Hitler intended to extend German boundaries by moving eastwards, to concentrate all Germans geographically in one place. Poland became the laboratory for this experiment.
22. Write a note on Racial Utopia. (3)
- Genocide and war became two sides of the same coin.
- Occupied Poland was divided. Much of north-western Poland was annexed to Germany. Poles were forced to leave their homes and properties behind to be occupied by ethnic Germans brought in from occupied Europe.
- Poles were then taken to the other part where all the ‘undesirables’ of the empire went, called the General Government,
- Members of the Polish intelligence were murdered in large numbers in order to keep the people intellectually and spiritually weak.
- Polish children who looked like Aryans were forcibly snatched from their mothers and examined by ‘race experts’.
- If they passed the race test, they were raised by the Germans, if not, they were sent to orphanages where most died.
23. Why should we accept the constitution though it was made nearly 70 years ago? (3)
- The drafting of the document called the constitution was done by an assembly of elected representatives called the Constituent Assembly.
- The Constitution does not reflect the views of its members alone. It expresses a broad consensus of its time.
- Several groups have questioned some provisions of the Constitution, but no large social group or political party has ever questioned the legitimacy of the Constitution itself.
- The Constituent Assembly was elected mainly by the members of the existing Provincial Legislatures. There was a fair geographical share of members from all regions of the country.
- The Assembly was dominated by the INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS, but within the Congress itself there were a variety of political groups and opinions.
- The Assembly had many members who did not agree with the Congress.
- The Assembly represented members from different Castes, classes, religions and occupations.
- The manner in which the constituent assembly worked gives sanctity to the Constitution.
- The Constituent assembly worked in a systematic, open and consensual manner.
- Some basic principles were decided and agreed upon.
- Then the chairman of the Drafting Committee, Dr B.R Ambedkar, prepared a draft constitution for discussion.
- Several rounds of thorough discussions, clause by clause, took place on the Draft Constitution.
- More than two thousand amendments were considered.
- The members had discussions for 114 days spread over three years.
- Every document presented and every word spoken in the constitution assembly has been recorded and preserved.
- These are called ‘Constituent Assembly Debates’.
- These debates provide the rationale behind every provision of the Constitution.
- These are used to interpret the meaning of the Constitution.
24. State any 3 powers of the election commission. (3)
Ans. Powers of the Election Commission are as follows:
- EC takes decisions on every aspect of conduct and control of elections from the announcement of elections to the declaration of results.
- It implements the Code of Conduct and punishes any candidate or party that violates it.
- During the election period, the EC can order the government to follow some guidelines, to prevent use and misuses of governmental power to enhance its chances to win elections, or to transfer some government officials.
- When on election duty, government officers work under the control of the EC and not the government.
25. A. What was the Forest Act. (2)
- By the mid-nineteenth century, various Forest Acts were being enacted in the different provinces.
- Forests were divided into two parts:
- RESERVED :
- These were the forests which produced commercially valuable timber like deodar or sal.
- No pastoralist was allowed access to these forests.
- In these, some customary grazing rights of pastoralists were granted.
- Their movements were severely restricted.
25. B. How did the Forest Act change the lives of the Pastoralists? (3)
- The Forest Acts changed the lives of pastoralists.
- Pastoralists were now prevented from entering many forests that had earlier provided valuable forage for their cattle.
- Even in the areas they were allowed entry, their movements were regulated.
- They needed a permit for their entry.
- The timing of their entry and departure was specified, and
- The number of days they could spend in the forest was limited.
- Pastoralists could no longer remain in an area even if :
- Forage was available,
- The grass was succulent
- The undergrowth in the forest was ample.
- The Forest Department permits that had been issued to them now ruled their lives.
- The permit specified the periods in which they could be legally within a forest.
- If they overstayed, they were liable to fines.
26. Write a note on Right to Freedom. (5)
The following are a part of the Right of Freedom:
1. Freedom of Speech and Expression:
- Our ideas and personality develop only when we are able to freely communicate with others.
- You should have the freedom to think differently and express your views accordingly.
- You are free to criticise the government or the activities of the association.
- You may publicise your views through a pamphlet, magazine or newspaper, paintings, poetry or songs.
- You cannot use it to incite people to rebel against the government. Neither can you use it to defame others by saying false and mean things that cause damage to a person’s reputation.
2. Assembly in a peaceful manner:
- Citizens have the freedom to hold meetings, processions, rallies and demonstrations on any issue.
- Citizens may want to discuss a problem, exchange ideas, mobilise public support to a cause or seek votes for a candidate or part in an election.
- These meetings must be held peacefully, it should not lead to public disorder or breach of peace in society.
- Those who participate in these meetings or activities should not carry weapons with them.
3. Formation of Associations and Unions:
- Citizens can form associations like workers in a factory can form a workers union to promote their interests.
- Or some people may come together to form an association to campaign against corruption or pollution.
4. Freedom to Travel inside the country:
- We are free to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India.
- This right allows lakhs of people to migrate from villages to towns and from poorer regions of the country to prosperous regions and big cities.
5. Reside in any part of the Country
6. Practise of any Profession, to carry any Occupation, Trade or Business:
- The freedom to travel inside the country extends to freedom of choice of occupations.
- No one can force you to do a certain job and women cannot be told that some kind of occupation is not for them.
- People from deprived castes cannot be kept to their traditional occupations.
7. Right to Life or Personal Liberty
- No person can be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law.
- In short, no person can be killed unless the court has ordered a death sentence.
- It also means that any government official or police officer cannot arrest or detain any citizen unless he has proper legal justification.
27. What is a Parliament and How does it exercise political authority on behalf of the people? (5)
Ans. In all democracies, an assembly of elected representatives exercises supreme political authority on behalf of the people. In India this national assembly of elected representatives is called a Parliament.
It exercise political authority on behalf of the people in many ways such as:
- Parliament is the final authority for making laws in the any country. This task of making laws or legislation is so crucial that these assemblies are called legislature. Parliaments all over the world can:
- make new laws,
- change existing ones or,
- abolish existing laws and make new ones in their place.
- Parliaments all over the world exercise some control over those who run the government. In some countries like India, this control is direct and full. Those who run the government can take decisions so long as they enjoy the support of the Parliament.
- Parliaments control all the money that governments have. In most countries, public money can be spent only when the parliament sanctions it.
- Parliament is the highest forum of discussions and debate on public issues and national policy in any country. Parliament can seek information about any matter.